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Apoptosis——Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a distinctive form of cell death exhibiting specific morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, genomic DNA fragmentation, and exposure of specific phagocytosis signaling molecules on the cell surface. Cells undergoing apoptosis differ from those dying through necrosis. Necrotic cells are usually recognized by the immune system as a danger signal and, thus, resulting in inflammation; in contrast, apoptotic death is quiet and orderly.

There are two major pathways of apoptotic cell death induction: The intrinsic pathway, also called the Bcl-2-regulated or mitochondrial pathway, is activated by various developmental cues or cytotoxic insults, such as viral infection, DNA damage and growth-factor deprivation, and is strictly controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The extrinsic or death-receptor pathway is triggered by ligation of death receptors (members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, such as Fas or TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1)) that contain an intracellular death domain, which can recruit and activate caspase-8 through the adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD; also known as MORT1) at the cell surface. This recruitment causes subsequent activation of downstream (effector) caspases, such as caspase-3, -6 or -7, without any involvement of the BCL-2 family.

Studies suggest that alterations in cell survival contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Treatments designed to specifically alter the apoptotic threshold may have the potential to change the natural progression of some of these diseases.

Apoptosis——Apoptosis(1484)

Cat. No. Product Name CAS No. Purity Chemical Structure
KM17475 (-)-Alkannin

(-)-Alkannin,在 alkanna tinctoria 中发现,用作食品着色剂。(-)-Alkannin 具有抗癌活性,抑制细胞周期,诱导细胞凋亡。(-)-Alkannin 在 Rho 激酶途径中改善肝脏炎症。

517-88-4 99%
KM11834 (-)-Huperzine A

(-)-Huperzine A (Huperzine A) 是从中国梅花苔中分离得到的生物碱,具有神经保护活性。(-)-Huperzine A 是一种高效、高特异性、可逆的,具有血脑屏障渗透性的乙酰胆碱酯酶 (AChE) 抑制剂, 其 IC50 值为 82 nM。 (-)-Huperzine A 也是 N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸 (NMDA) 受体的非竞争性拮抗剂。(-)-Huperzine A 被开发用于神经退行性疾病的研究,包括阿尔茨海默病。

102518-79-6 ≥98%
KM7423 (1S,2S)-Bortezomib

(1S,2S)-Bortezomib 是 Bortezomib 的对映异构体。Bortezomib 是一种细胞渗透性、可逆性和选择性的蛋白酶体抑制剂,通过靶向苏氨酸残基有效抑制 20S 蛋白酶体 (Ki 为 0.6 nM)。Bortezomib 破坏细胞周期、诱导细胞凋亡以及抑制核因子 NF-κB。Bortezomib 是一种抗癌药物,也是第一种用于人类的蛋白酶体抑制剂。

1132709-14-8 96%
KM19168 (20S)-Protopanaxadiol

20S-protopanaxadiol (aPPD) 是人参皂甙的代谢产物,抑制 Akt 活性并诱导多种肿瘤细胞凋亡[1]

30636-90-9 ≥98%
KM18664 (20S)-Protopanaxatriol

(20S)-Protopanaxatriol 是人参皂苷的代谢物,通过 glucocorticoid receptoroestrogen receptor 起作用,同时为 LXRα 的抑制剂。(20S)-Protopanaxatriol 具有广泛的抗癌活性。

34080-08-5 98%
KM2834 (5Z,2E)-CU-3

(5Z,2E)-CU-3 是一种有效的选择性抗 DGKα 同工酶抑制剂,IC50 值为 0.6 μM,竞争性抑制 DGKα 对 ATP 的亲和力,Km 值为 0.48 mM。(5Z,2E)-CU-3 靶向 DGKα 催化区域,但不靶向调节区域。(5Z,2E)-CU-3 具有抗肿瘤和免疫原性作用,增强癌细胞的凋亡和 T 细胞的活化。

1815598-71-0 98%
KM10374 (6R)-FR054

(6R)-FR054 是 FR054 的一个低活性异构体。

10378-06-0 ≥98%
KM16170 (E)-[6]-Dehydroparadol

(E)-[6]-Dehydroparadol 是 [6]-Shogaol 的氧化代谢产物,是一种有效的 Nrf2 活化剂。(E)-[6]-Dehydroparadol 可抑制人癌细胞的生长并诱导其凋亡。

878006-06-5 ≥95%
KM14802 (E)-Cardamonin

(E)-Cardamonin ((E)-Cardamomin) 是新颖的hTRPA1阳离子通道拮抗剂,IC50值为454 nM。

19309-14-9 99%
KM17447 (E)-Flavokawain A

(E)-Flavokawain A 是从卡瓦胡椒中提取的查尔酮,具有抗癌作用。(E)-Flavokawain A 通过介入 bax 蛋白依赖和线粒体依赖的凋亡通路,诱导膀胱癌细胞凋亡,抑制小鼠肿瘤生长。

37951-13-6 99%
KM14755 (E)-Methyl 4-coumarate

(E)-Methyl 4-coumarate (Methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate) 在几种植物中发现,如葱 (Allium cepa) 或 noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) 叶中。(E)-Methyl 4-coumarate 与 Carnosic Acid 联用可诱导细胞凋亡,杀死急性髓性白血病细胞,但不能杀死正常的外周血单核细胞。(E)-Methyl 4-coumarate 具有抗氧化和抗菌活性。

19367-38-5 99%
KM4615 (E/Z)-E64FC26

(E/Z)-E64FC26 是 E-E64FC26 和 Z-E64FC26 的混合物。E64FC26 (E-E64FC26) 是蛋白质二硫键异构酶 (PDI) 家族的一种有效的泛抑制剂,对 PDIA1、PDIA3、PDIA4、TXNDC5 和 PDIA6 的 IC50 分别为 1.9、20.9、25.9、16.3 和 25.4 μM。E64FC26 显示抗骨髓瘤活性。

2285446-67-3 99%
KM17770 (R)-CR8 trihydrochloride

(R)-CR8 (CR8) trihydrochloride 是 Roscovitine 的第二代类似物,是一种有效的 CDK1/2/5/7/9 抑制剂。(R)-CR8 trihydrochloride 抑制 CDK1/cyclin B (IC50=0.09 μM)、CDK2/cyclin A (0.072 μM)、CDK2/cyclin E (0.041 μM)、CDK5/p25 (0.11 μM)、CDK7/cyclin H (1.1 μM)、CDK9/cyclin T (0.18 μM) 和 CK1δ/ε (0.4 μM)。(R)-CR8 trihydrochloride 诱导细胞凋亡并具有神经保护作用。(R)-CR8 trihydrochloride 作为一种分子胶降解剂来消耗细胞周期蛋白 K。

1786438-30-9 99%
KM9079 (R)-Verapamil D7 hydrochloride

(R)-Verapamil D7 hydrochloride ((R)-(+)-Verapamil D7 hydrochloride) 是 (R)-Verapamil hydrochloride 的一种氘代化合物。(R)-Verapamil hydrochloride ((R)-(+)-Verapamil hydrochloride) 是一种 P-糖蛋白抑制剂。(R)-Verapamil hydrochloride 抑制 MRP1 介导的转运,导致 MRP1 过表达细胞对抗癌药产生化学敏感性。

KM7419 (R)-Verapamil hydrochloride

(R)-Verapamil hydrochloride ((R)-(+)-Verapamil hydrochloride) 是一种 P-糖蛋白 (P-Glycoprotein) 抑制剂。(R)-Verapamil hydrochloride 抑制 MRP1 介导的转运,导致 MRP1 过表达细胞对抗癌药产生化学敏感性。

38176-02-2 98%
KM18435 (R)​-​CR8

(R)​-​CR8 (CR8) 是 Roscovitine 的第二代类似物,是一种有效的 CDK1/2/5/7/9 抑制剂。(R)​-​CR8 (CR8) 抑制 CDK1/cyclin B (IC50=0.09 μM)、CDK2/cyclin A (0.072 μM)、CDK2/cyclin E (0.041 μM)、CDK5/p25 (0.11 μM)、CDK7/cyclin H (1.1 μM)、CDK9/cyclin T (0.18 μM) 和 CK1δ/ε (0.4 μM)。(R)​-​CR8 (CR8) 诱导细胞凋亡并具有神经保护作用。(R)​-​CR8 作为一种分子胶降解剂来消耗细胞周期蛋白 K。

294646-77-8 ≥98%
KM16208 (Rac)-Hesperetin

(Rac)-Hesperetin 是Hesperetin 的外消旋体。 Hesperetin 是一种天然黄烷酮类物质,为有效的,广谱的人 UGT 抑制剂。Hesperetin 可通过激活 p38 MAPK 来诱导凋亡。

69097-99-0 98%
KM7934 (Rac)-Idroxioleic acid

(Rac)-Idroxioleic acid (2-Hydroxyoleic acid) 是一种合成油酸 (OA) 衍生物,能与质膜结合改变脂质组织。(Rac)-Idroxioleic acid 具有抗肿瘤作用。

56472-29-8 ≥98%
KM11351 (Rac)-Indoximod

(Rac)-Indoximod (1-Methyl-DL-tryptophan) 是吲哚胺-2,3-双加氧酶 (IDO) 抑制剂。(Rac)-Indoximod 和 IFN-γ 联用显著降低了表达 α-SMA 的人心肌成纤维细胞活性,并通过上调 IRF-1,Fas 和 FasL 基因诱导凋亡(apoptosis)。

26988-72-7 98%
KM17237 (S)-(+)-Rolipram

(S)-(+)-Rolipram ((+)-Rolipram) 是 cAMP 依赖性磷酸二酯酶 4 (PDE4) 抑制剂,IC50 值为 1100 nM。(S)-(+)-Rolipram 可以抑制人单核细胞产生的肿瘤坏死因子 α (TNFα)。

85416-73-5 99%
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